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Источник: Оксфордский толковый словарь по психологии/Под ред. А.Ребера,2002 г

Найдено научных статей по теме — 12


Ershova Regina V., Tarnow Eugen
We analyzed working memory errors stemming from 193 Russian college students taking the Tarnow Unchunkable Test utilizing double digit items on a visual display.In three-item trials with at most one error per trial, single incorrect tens and ones digits (“singlets”) were overrepresented and made up the majority of errors, indicating a base 10 organization.These errors indicate that there are separate memory maps for each position and that there are pointers that can move primarily within these maps. Several pointers make up a pointer collection. The number of pointer collections possible is the working memory capacity limit. A model for self-organizing maps is constructed in which the organization is created by turning common pointer collections into maps thereby replacing a pointer collection with a single pointer.The factors 5 and 11 were underrepresented in the errors, presumably because base 10 properties beyond positional order were used for error correction, perhaps reflecting the existence of additional maps of integers divisible by 5 and integers divisible by 11.
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Why the Russian Baptists Are Neither Arminians nor Calvinists

Constantine Prokhorov
This paper shows the fundamental reasons why the Russian-Ukrainian Baptists are neither Arminians nor Calvinists. In contrast to the European and American Baptists, the Russian brotherhood of Evangelical Christians-Baptists is historically on different theological ground. Even the Communists indirectly assisted in this process: they hung the «iron curtain» that divided not only the socialist East and capitalist West, but once again drew the line of demarcation between Eastern and Western Christianity as a whole. At the same time, Orthodox Christians and Baptists within the USSR objectively entered into similar circumstances when they were persecuted alike and were mutually attracted to each other. The Russian Baptist authors, who wrote on predestination before perestroika, criticizing Calvinism, did not mention Arminianism as a theological alternative. The point here is not the exotic terminology, but what lies behind it, namely the principal differences between Reformed theology and the OrthodoxMolokan environment that nurtured the Russian Baptists. Opposing the Reformed doctrine of election, Russian evangelical authors contrasted it with the traditional (for all of Eastern Christianity) doctrine of salvation based on God’s foreknowledge of the spiritual decision of man. Calvinism and Arminianism became known among the Russian Baptists practically simultaneously during perestroika and not before.
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Pavlova A.M.
In this paper we reconstruct a famous Severin Boethius’s reasoning according to the idea of the medieval obligationes disputation mainly focusing on the formalizations proposed by Ch. Hamblin. We use two different formalizations of the disputation: first with the help of Ch. Hamblin’s approach specially designed to formalize such logical debates; second, on the basis of his formal dialectics. The two formalizations are used to analyze the logical properties of the rules of the medieval logical disputation and that of their formal dialectic’s counterparts. Our aim is to to show that Hamblin’s formal dialectic is a communicative protocol for rational agents whose structural rules may differ, thus, varying its normative character. By means of comparing Hamblin’s reconstructions with the one proposed by C. Dutilh-Novaes we are able to justify the following conclusions: (1) the formalization suggested by Hamblin fails to reconstruct the full picture of the disputation because it lacks in some the details of it; (2) Hamblin’s formal dialectic and the medieval logical disputation are based on different logical theories; (3) medieval logical disputation, represented by the formalization of C. Dutilh-Novaes, and the two ones of Hamblin encode different types of cognitive agents.
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What’s in My Profile: VKontakte Data as a Tool for Studying the Interests of Modern Teenagers

Katerina Polivanova, Ivan Smirnov
Children’s interests play a key role in their psychological development. However, research in this field is associated with serious methodological problems, as it has traditionally used questionnaire surveys that cannot adequately describe the diverse and dynamic world of interests of a developing person. The article suggests using the information on VKontakte communities followed by teenagers, in order to explore their interests. Apart from being comprehensive, Vkontakte data is, unlike questionnaire answers, also uncensored. The method’s potential demonstrated through the example of a Moscow school with 674 students following 20,203 various VKontakte communities. It reveals that teenagers’ interests vary depending on their gender, age, and academic performance. The degree of such variance is demonstrated on an extended set of data on the interests of 290,182 VKontakte users. It transpires that communities followed by teenagers predict with high accuracy not only their gender (97%) and age (98%) but also the performance of the schools they attend (83%). The findings point to the heterogeneity of age-related behavior patterns, in particular to their correlation with gender and academic achievements. Acknowledgement of the heterogeneity of interests and the diversity of age-related behavior patterns creates conditions for the further development of student-centered education, in the absence of which education is becoming more and more alienated from real life, ignoring the interests of real people
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What Factors Help and Hinder Children’s Progress in Reading?

Inna Antipkina, Marina Kuznetsova, Elena Kardanova
This study looked at the effects of phonological preparedness and vocabulary size in children, who just started primary school, on their progress in reading at the end of the first grade while controlling for other factors that can be related to increasing or decreasing reading achievements (such as SES, parenting activities and noncognitive development of children). The study was conducted using data from the IPIPS project which assesses the preparedness of children for schooling and their progress at the end of the first school year. The sample consisted of 2740 first-graders living in two large Russian cities (Krasnoyarsk and Kazan) whose reading skills were assessed twice, at the beginning and at the end of the 2014–2015 school year. The results demonstrated that low levels of phonological ability and vocabulary are related to lower results not only for those who just started learning to read (as is suggested by the theoretical framework of reading skills acquisitions) but also for children who already have basic reading skills or read well. To compensate for this, special teaching approaches might be needed. Among family factors the main predictors or reading results were the level of the father’s education and language at home. Parenting activities related to reading were divided into informal (reading a book, discussing a book, reading street signs out loud during walks etc.) and formal (deliberate teaching of letters and writing letters or words), with informal activities being a significant predictor of reading outcomes at the end of the first year. Conclusions and limitations of the study are discussed.
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Weightlifting means effectiveness during power abilities development among 9-11-year-old children

Anton A. Bezzubov, Vasiliy S. Belyaev, Dmitriy N. Chernogorov
In the article the effectiveness of weightlifting elements in harmonization of 9-11 year-old pupils physical development is proved, antropometric development and power development indices in the author’s methodology of power abilities development are corresponding. Material. The empirical basis of the research was the measurement of antropometric and morpho-functional indicators, indicators of test exercises for general and special physical training of 9-11 years pupils in the control and experimental groups. Methods. Theoretical and methodological analysis of the power abilities development in primary school children, pedagogical observation, anthropometry, pedagogical testing, pedagogical experiment, methods of statistical data analysis are applied. Effectiveness of the weightlifting means and methods use in the educational program of non-specialized educational institutions for children of primary school age is confirmed, an annual program of an educational course on the development of power skills taking into consideration our methodology is corrected. Conclusion. By the results of the empirical data analysis, tendencies of physical development harmonization are revealed and the growth of performance indicators in the experimental group general education key areas of knowledge is confirmed
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Was the Chiefdom a Congelation of Ideas?

Robert L. Carneiro
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Why Protagoras gets paid anyway: a practical solution of the paradox of court

Lisanyuk Elena
The famous dispute between Protagoras and Euathlus concerning Protagoras’s tuition fee reportedly owed to him by Euathlus is solved on the basis of practical argumentation concerning actions. The dispute is widely viewed as a kind of a logical paradox, and I show that such treating arises due to the double confusion in the dispute narrative. The linguistic expressions used to refer to Protagoras’s, Euathlus’s and the jurors’ actions are confused with these actions themselves. The other confusion is the collision between the pairs of incompatible actions ambiguously expressed by two different pairs of sentences, one of which is a propositionally consistent pair whereas the other is an inconsistent one. The actional (practical) paradox solution aims to clear up these confusions by means of two core borderlines, propositional and expressive, drawn between the actions and the propositions. The propositional distinction says that actions are empirical facts and they lack truth values unlike propositions, which are mental entities and are often employed for referring to the actions. This distinction helps to avoid the confusion between the empirical incompatibility of actions and the truth-functional inconsistency of propositions. The expressive distinction claims that although the same linguistic sentences can be used to refer both to actions and propositions, two empirically incompatible actions can be expressed both by a pair of inconsistent propositions as well as by a pair of consistent ones. Therefore, the action of Protagoras’s being paid may be linguistically symbolized in four different ways: Protagoras gets paid due to the verdict, Protagoras gets paid due to the contract that amount to Protagoras does not get paid by the contract and Protagoras does not get paid by the verdict respectively, and likewise for Euathlus’s actions. The two distinctions are used for classifying the two groups of paradox solutions, legal and logical, proposed so far depending on which of the two confusions they purport to escape from. The actional reconstruction of the paradox suggests that there is only one single agent in the dispute, Protagoras, while the other named Euathlus is a ‘phantom,’ which most probably was invented by Protagoras himself for the sake of creating this challenging sophism.
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Working motivation as mediating variable for the influence of Spiritual quotient towards working per

Nuhujanan Romualdus Philippus, Troeno Eka Afnan, Noermijati N., Sudiro Achmad
Spiritual quotient is an important element for an individual to achieve self-actualization. An individual who understands his or her talent and potentiality is creative, visionary and flexible. Such individual has strong motivation to improve his/her performance. The purpose of the study was to analyze the influence of spiritual quotient towards working performance that was mediated by working motivation. The subjects were 89 employees working in the Regional Secretary of Puncak Jaya. The population became the samples in the study. The data collection technique was distributing questionnaire while the data analysis method was the Partially Least Square (PLS). The findings were spiritual quotient was positive but did not influence working performance. Working motivation had direct influence towards working performance. Therefore, working motivation was needed in order that spiritual quotient could increase working motivation. In other words, the role of working motivation towards the influence of spiritual quotient towards working motivation of the employees in the Regional Secretary of Puncak Jaya, Papua was as full mediation.
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Working memory capacity test reveals subjects difficulties managing limited capacity

Ershova R.V., Eugen Tarnow
Free recall consists of two separate stages: the emptying of working memory and reactivation [5]. The Tarnow Unchunkable Test (TUT, [7]) uses double integer items to separate out only the first stage by making it difficult to reactivate items due to the lack of intra-item relationships.193 Russian college students were tested via the internet version of the TUT. The average number of items remembered in the 3 item test was 2.54 items. In the 4 item test, the average number of items decreased to 2.38. This, and a number of other qualitative distribution differences between the 3 and 4 item tests, indicate that the average capacity limit of working memory has been reached at 3 items. This provides the first direct measurement of the unchunkable capacity limit of number items.Difficulties in managing working memory occurred as most subjects remembered less as the number of items increased beyond capacity and failed to remember a single item in at least one out of three 4 item trials. The Pearson correlation between the total recall of 3 and 4 items was a small 38%.
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Wisdom and harmony

Vandamme F., Wang L., D, Debrauwer A., Kaczmarski P.
Wisdom and harmony must be approached as multi-layered, dynamic processes. The learning action team focuses on supporting especially young people and elderly people in their challenges of integration and development. These differrent layers of wisdom and harmony are crucial motors for innovation and strengthening progress as well for practice, therapy and theory…
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Warrior’s spirit: review of Michael Matthews’s book

Karayani Aleksandr G.
Matthews is one of those scholars and practitioners who started what was in effect “a military psychological revolution” in the US military in 2008 under the leadership of General George W. Casey, Jr., Chief of Staff of the US army, by fundamentally transforming its mission, orientation and methods of military psychology. In 2012, in collaboration with Janice H. Laurence, an associate professor at Temple University in Philadelphia, he edited the 1496-page 4-volume Military Psychology Reference Collection. The book Head Strong is a kind of manifesto proclaiming the psychological nature and character of war. The author believes war to be an act of will, a test of will and will, he maintains, is a psychological category.
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