V это что такое V: определение — Психология.НЭС
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V

Найдено 3 определения термина V

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V

1. Переменный стимул (также V). 2. Вольт.

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Источник: Оксфордский толковый словарь по психологии

V

1. Переменный стимул (также v). 2. См. варианса. 3. Фотопический коэффициент освещенности; VX.

Источник: Оксфордский толковый словарь по психологии

V’

Скотопический коэффициент освещенности; VX.

Источник: Оксфордский толковый словарь по психологии

Найдено рефератов по теме V — 0

Найдено схем по теме — 1

Найдено научных статей по теме — 12

Volleyball players training to overcome the competitive obstacles and difficulties

Galina A. Kamalieva
Overcoming the mental stress is an integral part of volleyball players training to overcome obstacles and competitive challenges through the development of theoretical and methodological and technological support of training athletes to overcome competitive challenges and obstacles. This targeted training includes theoretical, practical and control classes. Thus, the model training volleyball players to overcome obstacles and competitive challenges is implemented. Material. The article considers the problem of volleyball players mental readiness formation to overcome obstacles and challenges through modelling of competitive activity during the theoretical and practical training on the basis of complex tasks Research methods. The analysis and synthesis of scientific and methodical literature, pedagogical supervision, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics. Results. The model of volleyball players mental readiness formation to overcome obstacles and competitive challenges is presented. It sets out that purposeful training of volleyball players to overcome competitive obstacles and difficulties competition encompasses both theoretical, practical and control lessons. Conclusion. The proposed model contributes to the mental readiness of volleyball players to overcome obstacles and competitive difficulties, that allows to recommend its practical application in sports training system.
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Victor Pelevin’s Homo Zapiens and “ideology Pepsi”

Gerhard Julia
Viktor Pelevin in his novel “Homo Zapiens” depicts a Russian society in the 1990’s under a magic spell of a new type of ideology “Ideology Pepsi” that quickly and effectively substituted the communist ideology and produced a new myth of reality. However, unlike the traditional concept of ideology that subjugates and controls its populace through coercive practices, this new ideology accesses people on a subliminal level, focusing on their libidinal desires hidden deeply in the unconscious. Through a perpetual bombardment of commercials, the new ideology promotes mindless consumerism and creates a new myth of eternity that dupes people into thinking that by buying a certain product they will somehow attain the myth of eternity and ultimate freedom associated with it. Thus, people live in a simulated reality that eventually leads to the simulacrum of reality a non-existent world, a copy that has no original and yet appears to be real. In contrast to a traditional notion of ideology with a powerful ruling class at the top, this new ideology presents a different structure that has no central apparatus of power. Indeed, it creates and recreates itself through a self-perpetuating and self-generating cycle materialized through media and TV: “localized centres” that control and manipulate its citizens in the comfort of their own sofa.
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Vygotsky in applied neuropsychology

Glozman Janna M.
The aims of this paper are: 1) to show the role of clinical experience for the theoretical contributions of L.S. Vygotsky, and 2) to analyze the development of these theories in contemporary applied neuropsychology. An analysis of disturbances of mental functioning is impossible without a systemic approach to the evidence observed. Therefore, medical psychology is fundamental for forming a systemic approach to psychology. The assessment of neurological patients at the neurological hospital of Moscow University permitted L.S. Vygotsky to create, in collaboration with A.R. Luria, the theory of systemic dynamic localization of higher mental functions and their relationship to cultural conditions. In his studies of patients with Parkinson’s disease, Vygotsky also set out 3 steps of systemic development: interpsychological, then extrapsychological, then intrapsychological. L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria in the late 1920s created a program to compensate for the motor subcortical disturbances in Parkinson’s disease (PD) through a cortical (visual) mediation of movements. We propose to distinguish the objective mediating factors like teaching techniques and modalities from subjective mediating factors, like the individual’s internal representation of his/her own disease. The cultural-historical approach in contemporary neuropsychology forces neuropsychologists to re-analyze and re-interpret the classic neuropsychological syndromes; to develop new assessment procedures more in accordance with the patient’s conditions of life; and to reconsider the concept of the social brain as a social and cultural determinant and regulator of brain functioning. L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria proved that a defect interferes with a child’s appropriation of his/her culture, but cultural means can help the child overcome the defect. In this way, the cultural-historical approach became, and still is, a methodological basis for remedial education.
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Values and attitudes towards immigrants: cross-cultural differences across 25 countries

Vladimir A. Ponizovskiy
Attitudes towards immigrants remain a relevant psychological outcome as they are related to prejudice, discrimination, and adaptation of migrants. Recent studies showed that basic human values could be used to explain considerable proportion of variance in attitudes towards immigrants and immigration. These studies reported that across cultural contexts the value dimension of self-transcendence is positively related to attitudes to migrants, and the value dimension of conservation is related negatively. In this paper I attempt to address some theoretical problems with universalistic interpretations of value-behavior relationships and propose a new method to identify culturally specific patterns of value-attitude relationships. Data from 25 countries collected in waves 5 and 6 of the European Social Survey (ESS) was used to assess feasibility of the proposed method. Accounting for cross-country variation significantly improved predictions of attitudes towards immigrants from individual values. Moreover, the proposed measure moderated the relationship between individual values and attitudes towards immigrants when tested against an independent data set. In line with past studies, the results indicate that overall, universalism (a self-transcendent value) is the most positive predictor of attitudes towards immigrants, and security (a conservation value) is the most negative. Unlike previous studies, there is no support for universality of the pattern. A theoretical explanation for cultural variation is offered.
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Value and beauty of impermanence: Buddhist philosophy through Japanese aesthetics

Petek Nina
Spiritual tradition in Japan under the influence of philosophy of Buddhism, which mediated the insight about transience of all things and is oriented towards the acceptance of life in all forms, created important aesthetic con-cepts, which are defined by objective character (with a bunch of images, metaphors and styles); and according to subjective criterions they express the appearance of individual feelings, which are linked with mood, state of con-sciousness or atmosphere. Concepts of Japanese aesthetics reflect timeless and always current expression of non-dualistic attitude towards the world, which is based on understanding all things in their essential nature. The art form and aesthetic sensibility point to an important soteriological tendency of the Buddhist philosophy holistic view, which does not allow gaps between human and reality, is the foundation for the highest state of being, nirvāṇa, which is the source of special beauty and leads to liberation from worldly adversities.
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Verbal Representation of Ethnical Stereotypes about the Dutch in English (an Insight into Cross-Cult

Elena Golubovskaya
The paper presents a brief summary of the multi-level interdisciplinary research on Englishmen’s ethnic stereotypes about the Dutch and the ways they manifest themselves in the English language. Unconventionally, the national stereotype is investigated as a subject of Cognitive Linguistics. As a result, the term “conceptual model” is proposed as an equivalent to “conceptual metaphor”, and two conceptual models verbally represented by the ethnonym “Dutch” and phraseological units with this component are described. A literature review examines if the identified conceptual models are supported in literary discourse, then the usage of the key lexis is analyzed meticulously for the same purpose. The last part of the paper suggests the results of the experiment held to verify if the stereotypical perceptions of the Dutch are maintained by people in contemporary Great Britain. The results indicate that language plays a significant role in stereotype formation and maintenance.
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Value of “mentality” and “mental” concepts in Russian, nglish and French

Larisa Ya. Kozlova
The article dwells on the cognitive-national sphere which is the subject of attention of researchers nowadays. One of the concepts that are difficult to detect, includes the concept of mentality, because it is not structured and is a kind of predisposition, the inner person's willingness to act in a certain way. The origin and formation of the concepts "mentality" and "mental" in Russian and foreign humanities are considered in this article. With this purpose vocabulary definitions on the material of Russian, English and French dictionaries and the researchers` points of view in the given languages are analyzed, and an attempt is made to identify common and different features inherent in these concepts. The method used is a conceptual analysis. In addition, we aim to identify what the correlation of "mentality" and "world view", "mentality" and "national character" concepts are. The volume of concepts "mentality" and "mental" considered in this article on the material of dictionary definitions and various Russian and foreign scientists` points of view, is different in Russian, English and French. In the Russian language, in general, they talk about the mentality of a group of people or whole nations, whereas the French can talk about the mentality of one person, and, to mean by mentality a moral behaviour of an individual. In English, the concept "mentality" has a volume greater than in the other two languages. In English mentality, in contrast to the Russian concept, can have a negative evaluation (e.g. I can`t understand the mentality of these people). By mentality can be understood a degree of intelligence (low, medium, high) and characteristics of the mind (e.g., bourgeois mentality). The Russian "mental" is basically identical with the French "mental" (belonging to the mental activity that uses intellectual ability). However, the French adjective has a different value than the Russian one, that is, "pertaining to mental activity in regard to the health and perhaps its pathological aspects". In English, the concept "mental" has the meanings: 1) relating to the total emotional and intellectual response to the human world around us; 2) referring to the intellectual rather than emotional activity; 3) related to mental disorders; 4) intended for the care or for the treatment of patients with mental disorders, which are absent in the corresponding Russian concept. In modern humanities the concept "world view" gradually recedes into the background and is replaced by the concept "mentality". National mentality implies stereotypes of consciousness, while the national character means psychological patterns of behaviour ofpeople. The data of this small study demonstrate the need for the further research of the concepts "mentality" and "mental" and their representation in languages in order to identify the features of the national consciousness of different peoples.
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Viewpoints and flashpoints in the study of video game violence and aggression

Olson Cheryl K., Kutner Lawrence
Исследователи в разных областях знания подходят к тематике агрессивных компьютерных игр и насилия с различных точек зрения, используя разнообразные методы и преследуя разные цели. Специалисты в области экспериментальной психологии стремятся проверять теории в контролируемых условиях и полагают, что все дети подвержены риску проявления насилия во время игры. Они весьма энергично настаивают на том, что следует ограничить воздействие на молодежь содержательной стороны (контента) агрессивных компьютерных игр. Специалисты по прикладным дисциплинам, таким как здравоохранение, клиническая психология или криминология, полагают, что эффекты компьютерных игр (негативные или позитивные) неоднозначны, они зависят от конкретного ребенка, а также от обстоятельств и от содержания игры; такие специалисты стремятся выделить паттерны высокого риска путем полевых, а не лабораторных исследований. Эти разные подходы объясняют разногласия касательно связи, если таковая имеется, между агрессивными компьютерными играми и насильственным поведением. Некоторые разногласия можно сгладить путем формализации определений и методов. Например, путаница возникает, когда исследователям не удается четко определить понятие «агрессия», когда агрессивные мысли, чувства и поведение рассматриваются как часть континуума или когда агрессия приравнивается к враждебному намерению или насилию. Ряд данных свидетельствует, что исследователи насилия в средствах массовой информации, как и все другие люди, склонны обращать внимание, прежде всего, на такие факты, которые поддерживают их точку зрения. Активный поиск общей платформы и привлечение новых исследователей из различных областей будут способствовать развитию данной сферы знаний.
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Verbal associations to visual stimuli: quantitative analysis

Miklashevski A.A.
The paper is devoted to a quantitative analysis of the results of an associative experiment, which was held previously. Some of the Paivio''s conclusions about dual coding of information (verbal and visual) are applied into the research of subjective visual images, information conversion from a visual to a verbal mode. Within the research visual and verbal information processing is related to the response on concrete and abstract nouns. The results of a quantitative analysis and intermediate conclusions are presented. Dynamics of verbal and visual coding during an associative experiment is being studied.
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Vygotsky and Piaget: scientific concepts

Alves Pedro Ferreira
Jean Piaget’s so-called biological perspective is often paired with the viewpoint of Lev Vygotsky when we speak of learning in humans. Both authors acknowledged the active role of children in the construction of knowledge. However, they differ in that, unlike Piaget, Vygotsky believed that the assimilation of new information does not have to wait for an appropriate level of development but must, on the contrary, produce that development through instruction; thus, cooperation between teacher and student promotes the development of higher psychological functions. The present research presents proof that school instruction is instrumental in this process. Samples of adults who had acquired distinct levels of schooling (from illiterates to university students) are differentiated experimentally through the use of four Piagetian cognitive problem-solving tasks created for adolescents and adults. The present research suggests that instructional level is the distinctive factor in the development of those problem-solving capacities that implicate higher psychological functions.
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Vygotsky and intersubjectivity

Krichevets Anatoly N.
Lev Vygotsky’s statement on the development of the higher psychological functionsfrom the interpsychological form to the intrapsychological form-is discussed in the article. I describe the changing of Vygotsky’s interest from nonverbal to verbal communication and his emphasis on verbal communication as an only kind of interpsychological function. I then analyze works that show the importance of nonverbal communication in this process. I raise the questions of what an interpsychological function is and who is its “owner.” I argue that immediate response to the behavior (verbal and nonverbal) of another person is a basis for the psychological functions of a child, and this basis continues to influence processes in later stages of human development, including adulthood. Thus, interpsychological function in the development of the child is inevitably connected with some kind of passivity in reactions to social stimulation.
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Verbal working memory: magnetic resonance morphometric analysis and a psychophysiological model

Kozlovskiy Stanislav A., Pyasik Maria M., Vartanov Aleksander V., Nikonova Evgenia Yu.
Neuropsychological characteristics of verbal working memory (memory capacity, permanency, and different types of memory errors) of 43 healthy subjects of older age were compared with the anatomical characteristics of their brain structures (volume of the hippocampi and the caudate nuclei, size of the cingulate-cortex regions of both hemispheres). The obtained data demonstrate a correlation between the permanency of ver-bal-information maintenance and left caudate-nucleus volume and a positive correlation between associative-memory capacity and left hippocampus volume. A decline in the number of verbal-memory errors (confabulations) is related to the increased size of the left anterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, verbal working-memory capacity and permanency correlate negatively with the size of the left posterior dorsal cingulate cortex, whereas the number of fluctuations and word replacements correlate positively with the increased size of this brain region. We suggest a psychophysiological model of verbal-stimulus maintenance in working memory based on the results of our study and published research data.
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