Dialectical logic of cultural and activity psychology as a tool to identify the nature of mental rea
Sokolova Elena E.
This essay is aimed at considering the possibility itself of metacomprehension of the mental reality so cherished by Lev Vygotsky from the positions of cultural and activity psychology. It is demonstrated that the program Vygostky outlined for creating the new general psychology involves the use of dialectical logic (as opposed to the contemporary projects of integrative psychology based on the and and logic). Applied in a creative way to the problem of nature of mental reality, the dialectical logic let the adherents of Alexei Leontiev school draw the conclusion that activity can be regarded as a substance of mind and that, consequently, the mind can be regarded as a functional organ of activity. Such an interpretation of the mental reality makes it possible to resolve a number of theoretical and practical psychological problems anew.
Character and temperamental determinants of prosodic parameters in natural speech
Silnitskaya Anna S., Gusev Alexey N.
The study was undertaken to find relationships between personality and temperamental traits (estimated with the help of the Adult Personality Traits Questionnaire by Manolova, Leonhard and the Russian version of the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire (STQ) by Rusalov V. & Trofimova I. (2007)) on the one hand, and parameters of intonation (mean ΔF0, tone span, speech rate, duration of speech and mean duration of syllables interval) on the other hand. The parameters of intonation were measured on sample recordings produced by 30 male and female participants. 60 recordings of natural monologues on proposed topics were obtained in situations of the presence and absence of a conversation partner. Demostrativity (as a personality trait according to Leonhard’s typology) was found to significantly affect mean ΔF0, tone span and speech rate in the presence of an interlocutor. Social Tempo (as a dimension of temperament according to Rusalov’s model) affects the speech rate. In the absence of an interlocutor, only an interaction effect of Demonstrativity and Communication Activity on the same group of vocal parameters was obtained. The presence of an interlocutor proved to be a special condition for the most explicit appearance of Demonstrativity. Temperamental indices that describe the Communication realm seem to moderate the appearance of Demonstrativity in different conditions. Most explicitly, the key feature of people with strong Demonstrativity is a high speech rate.
Nature of individual difference in liability to depression in Russian adolescents
Belova Alexandra P., Sabirova Elena Z., Malykh Sergey B.
The Influence of genetic and environmental factors on liability to depression in Russian teenage sample was investigated. 196 twin pairs aged 13 to 17 (M=15,2) from Moscow, Izhevsk and Bishkek took part in the survey. We have found out that genetic factors had an effect on individual difference in depressiveness among Russian teenagers: more than 50% of variance was explained by additive genetic factors which correspond to international results. The biggest genetic influence was obtained for such scales as negative emotions, negative self esteem and exter- nalization which are the most replicable factor scales in CDI structure worldwide
The nature of chess expertise: knowledge or search?
Vasyukova Ekaterina E.
In this article, we briefly survey studies of the nature of expertise, and we present the results of research directed at evidence of the complicated nature of expertise, which is most effectively seen in experts' use of a transfer mechanism. The phenomenon of the transfer of verbalized operational senses (VOS) is analyzed and is investigated on the basis of the sense theory of thinking, as proposed by Tikhomirov (1969, 1984). It is shown that VOS transfer manifests itself in diverse forms. It seems to be dependent on the factors of chess position and the age and skill level of the player. Diverse forms of transferring are associated with a change in separate indices of VOS volume, structure, depth, and degree of consciousness in a connected position. VOS transfer is found more in skilled than in unskilled chess players; skilled players demonstrate selectivity of search in a connected position. VOS transfer is associated not simply with the repetition and copying of some forecasts, which give the direction of search, but also with using and transforming the results of previous verbal searches.
Данная статья обращается к проблеме генезиса эмпатической, интерсубъективной интенциональности, которая лежит в основании отношений с перспективы второго лица. Эта тема – одна из самых интригующих в современнной философии и в медисциплинарнх исследований. Автор стремится прояснить основания феномена другого, составляющего неотъемлемую часть нашего повседневного опыта. В первой части статьи представлен критический анализ некоторых аспектов теории интерсубъективности, таких как аналогический перенос, анонимности интерсубъективного бытия, недоступность непосредственого переживания другого. Затем, ориентируясь на такие темы, как телесность, деятельностная природа субъективности, историческое и социальное измерение субъективности, автор указывает на разработку понятия эмпатии как необходимого условия встречи с другим. В качестве результата статья демонстрирует близость гуссерлевской идеи не-объективирующей интенционалньости эмпатическому подходу в современной философии. В качестве предшественников последнего можно указать М. Бубера, Л. Витгенштейна, М. Шелера, которые открывают диалогическую структуру сознания и ее эм/симпатическую природу. Автор также представляет интерпретацию эмпатии как исключительной формы интенционального отношения (Томпсон), которая позволяет переживать опыт другого в его непосредственной данности с перспективы второго лица (Ш. Галлагер). Анализ эмпатии, кроме того, может быть многообещающим для современных исследований аффективного сознания, которые также упоминаются. Статья подчеркивает необходимость дальнейшего изучения «бытия-с» в феноменологической традиции и в междисциплинарном пространстве в той степени, в какой интерсубъективность конституирует чувство самости как на оптном, так и на трансцендентальном уровнях.
Influence of computer games on the sleep quality and the nature of dreams in students
Davidovsky Anatoly Grigorievich, Mezianaya Kira Nikolaevna, Yashin Konstantin Dmitrievich, Karaneuski Konstantin Mikhailovich, Dik Sergey Konstantinovich
This study explored the use of different forms of the virtual world among students and the study of its influence on unconscious processes in students. The test group was comprised of 141 participants who were second to fifth year students at a technical university of Minsk city. We found that 38.3% of the participants spent more than 40 hours per work in the virtual world and 26.2% spent 25–39 hours per week. Moreover, 90.8% of the students engaged in computer games and game plots were present in the dreams of 16.3% of students. Nightmares and incubi were the cause of being awoken in 71.6% of students. Moreover, 14.9% of respondents expressed changes in depth psychology. Computer games are especially popular in the students’ environment, and their substantial impact on the gamers’ sleep quality and the nature of dreams was observed.
The role of naturalistic beliefs for the atheists` psychological wellness
Although some psychological studies of atheism take place, the empirical evidence available is limited and does not reveal the distinctions between atheists with different beliefs. The present research used both eudaimonic (C. Ryff‘s SPWB) and hedonic (E. Diener‘s SWLS, PANAS) measurements, and also The Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ) to examine the differences in the psychological wellness among two groups of self-proclaimed atheists through the contrast of means statistical method. According to the hypotheses, selfproclaimed atheists with naturalistic beliefs show higher mean rates of the PWB and its indexes. The members of the group with naturalistic beliefs, who consider that nothing beyond the causally closed physical world exists, have shown significantly higher means of the integral PWB, Autonomy, Purpose in Life, and lower for the Search for Meaning. When the demographical variables were controlled through ANOVA, only naturalistic views were related to the Autonomy and Purpose in Life scales significantly. The mechanisms of the psychological wellness include a confident and coherent system of views, and ontological naturalism may be utilized for this purpose.
Which properties can we visually experience? Some authors hold that we can experience only low-level properties such as color, illumination, shape, spatial location, and motion. Others believe that we can also experience high-level properties, such as being a dog or being a pine tree. On the basis of her method of phenomenal contrast, Susanna Siegel has recently defended the latter view. One of her central claims is that we can best account for certain phenomenal contrasts if we assume that we can visually experience natural kind properties. In this paper, I argue that certain kinds of low-level properties, namely shape-gestalt properties, can explain these phenomenal contrasts just as well as high-level properties. If successful, this is a modest, but nevertheless significant result. Even though it does not prove the falsity of Siegel’s proposal, it nevertheless secures the existence of a plausible alternative.
в представленной статье исследователями рассматриваются традиционные базовые основания эстетического вкуса и его связь с искусством, а также делается попытка анализа текущей ситуации вкуса в контексте современных вызовов времени.the researchers of the article deal with traditional outlooks upon the origin of taste and its relationship with art and its current situation of taste functioning in terms of increasing globalization, virtualization and informational support rates in present society. The special concern contributes taste rebranding and semantic network modeling taste regard responds.
Methodological basis of ecological lifestyle formation as the condition of nature protecting attitud
Alexandr V. Nazarenko, Irina V. Astrakhantseva
Environment state in Russia and in the world in general achieved its critical level, which is dangerous for the existing civilization. The reason for the present situation is the process of globalization, which is accompanied by material benefits and comfortable life conditions increase. Without changing a consumer’s attitude to environment for nature protecting and recourses saving one it is impossible to solve this problem. Principal change of the interaction character between people and environment demands ecological worldview, ecological awareness, ecological thinking and ecological culture formation, directed at the relations optimization between people and environment. Practical realization of a new paradigm of society and nature interaction demands habitual lifestyle change for ecological one, which conditions readiness to fulfill nature protecting and recourses saving activity. Material. Theoretical and experimental substantiation of the necessity to change a consumer’s attitude to nature for nature protecting one, as the condition for health-improving educational space creation. Research methods: scientific and methodical literature analysis and systematization, pedagogical experiment, testing, the method of expert evaluations, statistical data handling. Result. Innovative technology creation of ecological lifestyle formation is connected with the problem solution of an integral health-improving educational space of population creation. The results of this technology use showed a considerable understanding improvement by students form the EG the essence and importance of involving people into ecological lifestyle, on the basis of mastering its main conceptual and methodological theses, scientific principles, aims and objectives, pedagogical conditions; effective means, methods and evaluation criteria of the formation level use, the technology of future teachers involvement into nature protecting and nature saving attitude to environment. Conclusion. Innovative technology use of involving people into ecological lifestyle creates necessary preconditions for an integral health-improving educational space organization, which provides interaction harmonization of a person and nature, further society development on the principles of natural recourses rational use, provides the ability of nature to self-regeneration.