STR sui generic


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Иногда употребляется как аббревиатура для обозначения безусловного стимула; US и UCS – более распространенные обозначения.

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Источник: Оксфордский толковый словарь по психологии

Найдено научных статей по теме — 8


A. Fries (Panel Chair), W. P. Cherry, R. G. Easterling, E. A. Elsayed, A. V. Huzurbazar, S. V. Wiel, P. A. Jacobs, W. Q. Meeker, Jr. N. Nagappan, M. Pecht, A. Sen, C. Citro, M. L. Cohen, M. J. Siri
This paper, extracted from National Research Council (2015), summarizes the findings and recommendations from a recent report from the Panel on Reliability Growth Methods for Defense Systems, operating under the auspices of the Committee on National Statistics (CNSTAT) within the National Research Council (NRC). The report offers recommendations to improve defense system reliability throughout the sequence of stages that comprise U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) acquisition processes – beginning with the articulation of requirements for new systems and ending with feedback mechanisms that document the reliability experience of deployed systems. A number of these recommendations are partially or fully embraced by current DoD directives and practice, particularly with the advent of recent DoD initiatives that elevate the importance of design for reliability techniques, reliability growth testing, and formal reliability growth modeling. The report supports the many recent steps taken by DoD, building on these while addressing associated engineering and statistical issues. The report provides a self-contained rendition of reliability enhancement proposals, recognizing that current DoD guides and directives have not been fully absorbed or consistently applied and are subject to change.
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Cuadrado José Ángel García
В своей книге «Проблемы» (раздел XXX, д. 1) Аристотель утверждает, что избыток черной желчи (меланхолии) является источником болезни, но в умеренных дозах это может стать органической предпосылкой гениальности. Этот текст широко обсуждался ренессансными врачами и философами (Хуан де Авиньон, Бернардино Монтанья, Бартоломео Фелипе, Педро Меркадо, Франсиско Валериола и Хуан Уарте). В эпоху барокко этот аристотелевский сюжет был повторяющейся темой в психологии, искусстве и литературе. Некоторые врачи приписывали меланхолии демонические черты, связанные с астральными движениями (Андреас Веласкес, Франсиско Вальес, Альфонсо де Санта Крус). В эпоху романтизма фигура гения вобрала в себя черты, разработанные в медицине барокко. Ф.Суарес не мог игнорировать этот вопрос и кратко осветил его в своем комментарии к трактату «О душе» Аристотеля, предложив физиологическую интерпретацию гениальности. Другие богословы, например Д.Баньес, придерживались более гибкого толкования. Но оба мыслителя поставили под сомнение интерпретацию некоторых врачей, которые относились к меланхолии как к астральному или вредящему человеку фактору. Библиогр. 24 назв.Aristotle in the Problems (Section XXX, q. 1), states that excessive black bile (atrabilis or melancholy) can be a disease; but, the atrabilis in moderate doses, it can be the organic foundation of genius. This is the doctrine also maintained by Galen and the Aristotelian medieval interpreters. This text was widely discussed by Renaissance physicians and philosophers (Juan de Aviñón, Bernardino Montaña, Bartolomé Felipe, Pedro Mercado, Francisco Valleriola, and Juan Huarte de San Juan). In the Baroque period, it was a recurring theme in psychology, medicine, art, theology and literature. Some physicians attribute diabolic traits to melancholy associated with astral movements (Andrés Velázquez, Francisco Vallés, Alfonso de Santa Cruz). In the romanticism the figure of the genius picks up the features developed by the medicine of the baroque period. Suarez could not ignore the question and briefly addressed it in his commentary on De anima with a physiological or “naturalistic” interpretation of genius: Physiology determined the conditions and phenomena of genius. Other theologians, such as Báñez, maintain a more flexible interpretation: Intellectual habits (e.g., study and work) incline to the acquisition of a melancholic character. But neither Suárez nor Báñez attribute to melancholy either devilish or astral traits. Refs 24.
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Succession of generations as the process of cultural transmission

Kalanova Sabohat Muradovna
The author examines the widely studying recently in sociology method “analysis of the history of the generations.” The main essence of this method lies in the fact that this method as a qualitative method in sociology reveals the influence of the change of generations in the events taking place in modern societies.
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Summary of the socio-cultural rights from the point of psychology

Melnikova N.V.
Man the heir to the preceding life in the progressive course of human civilization. He a product of the environment, active and passive training of volitional behavior and attention. It's his way of thinking and reflecting the work of thought to the development of opinions, wealth of personal consciousness of each "I". The process of development of the personality traits of forms, property, habits, moral standards and meet the requirements of the modern paradigm of values and cultural traditions. Renewal of thought comes at the request of the "I" through the reproduction of ideas. The main thing understanding the thought process of the individual in the disclosure of the evolution of the human psyche. This is a problem about the concepts of "development" of social and personal development."
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Subjectness as Possibleness

Petrovskiy Vadim A.
The author understands the subject in general as the cause of oneself and determines the subjectness of an individual as their ability to be both the source and the result of their own activities. In the present work, the author answers the following question: What is the subject of reproduction in an individual? In comparison with an earlier interpretation of subjectness, the scope of revealed causa sui is specified: possibilities of an individual are discerned which are implemented and acquired by them in the process of activity. The Subject is not the one who has achieved but the one who does everything to achieve. Being the Subject means to produce possibilities of achieving. The criterion of subjectness is the correspondence between the opportunities invested in the process, and the opportunities accumulated in the process of achieving. This way subjectness is determined as the art of dealing with own current possibilities, thus ensuring their extensive reproduction. In the meantime it is postulated that the total amount of potential possibilities of an individual is unlimited (the metaphor of an infinite-dimensional cube is taken). Possibilites are appropriated (M. Heidegger) in the process of an individual’s interaction with environment. They not only contribute to achieving of any other purposes, but they themselves form the goals guiding the activity. There are various possibilities, internal and external, obvious and hidden, newly acquired and actualized, opportunities of support and opportunities of desire. The following is accepted: the higher the level of obvious (manifested) possibilities (I can), the stronger the urge to implement them (I want) (thus not only I want causes I can, but I can challenges I want). The dynamic unity of I can and I want forms the essence of what the author determines as Possibleness of an individual; we mean the possibilities that an individual does not only have but experiences them as existing in him. Possibleness is an experienced feasibility of possibilities. There are conditions of the Possibleness optimum that are based on the mathematical model of Possibleness combining ideas of the variety of possibilities. In this context, subjectness is defined as the Possibleness that meets the optimum criteria (“Get your investments repaid”, “Be efficient”, “Save up”, “Do not skimp on efforts”). An obvious consequence of accepting the Possibleness model is the transition to multi-subject models of personality: they allow to realize the Possibleness optimum conditions in those cases when the one-to-one with the world interaction impedes revealing of subjectness (limited resources of the environment, lack or surplus of desires). There are several models of subject assemblies: self-employed farmer, author — expert, leader — partners, and master — worker. There are some numerical examples given illustrating the effect of achieving the Possibleness optimum in various forms of subject assemblies. In accordance with the law of development of higher mental functions (according to L. Vygotsky) a hypothetical attempt is made to describe the structure of an individual’s personality as a result of interiorization of various subject assemblies. From this point of view we have considered some manifestations of an individual’s self-regulation (taking such forms as volitional, semantic, target- oriented, and operational) when solving a problem to one’s taste. The empirical research shows that in the process of solving such problems each of the inner subjects included in the personality (Autocratic I, With One Other, I Myself, and Capable I) reaches a compliance of the individual’s ambitions and the acquired possibilities. Three variants of the subject organization of personality are described: mono-personality, binary personality, and ternary personality. Both hypothetical and real-life examples of functioning of the individual’s Possibleness model are drawn for different variants of the subject organization of personality. The models presented are the model of an ideal negotiator (Trust, but verify! — How much?), the model of hope and disappointment in love, the model of the triumvirate of subjects, the reinterpreting model of risktaking by J. Atkinson. The culture presented to an individual in the form of symbolic interactions between different Is (as society in one’s head), is interpreted as a condition for achieving the Possibleness optimum which implies a different level of subject complexity for every personality construction (binary, ternary, tetrary etc.).
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Subjectivity and peculiarities of subjective characteristics development among master’s degree stude

Akhmetzhanova Altynay Kuanysheva, Ermentayeva Ardakh Rizabekovna
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Successful science without miracles

Niiniluoto I.
Science is highly successful in making empirical predictions and guiding our practical actions. This paper defends the so-called ‘ultimate argument for scientific realism’ by claiming that this empirical and pragmatic success of scientific theories would be a miracle unless they are true or truthlike. This argument is abductive in Charles Peirce’s sense, as it appeals to inference to the best explanation.
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Subjective well-being of the child brought up in the remarried family

Kolotilina Victoria V.
В статье рассматриваются: проблема субъективного благополучия ребенка, различные модели субъективного благополучия, тип семейного воспитания в семьях повторного брака, излагаются результаты сравнительного исследования субъективного благополучия ребенка в семьях с разным стажем совместного проживания в повторном браке.
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