Strategies and resources for coping with fear of disease progression in women with reproductive-syst
Natalya A. Sirota, Denis V. Moskovchenko, Vladimir M. Yaltonsky, Victor V. Guldan, Aleksandra V. Yaltonskaya
Fear of disease progression is one of the most common sources of psychological distress in patients suffering from chronic diseases. Fear of disease progression is a situationspecific and fully discernible (reportable) emotion based on personal experience of a life-threatening disease. This article presents the results of a study of cancer patients’ coping behavior according to the levels of fear of disease progression experienced. The presence of pronounced fear of disease progression reflects a negative cognitive-affective response to one’s expectations for one’s own future; this response is related to a decrease in adaptive capacity. To determine the particular characteristics of coping strategies and coping resources in women with reproductive-system cancers according to the level of fear of disease progression. A total of 177 women with reproductive-system cancers were examined, among them 59 with breast cancer and 118 with gynecological cancers. Women with reproductive-system cancers have varying sets of coping strategies and coping resources according to their level of fear of disease progression. For each of the differentiated groups, specific characteristics of the strategies of coping with difficult life situations are described, along with cognitive self-regulation strategies specific to the illness and to coping resources. The women exhibiting moderate fear of disease progression significantly more often adhered to problem-oriented strategies of coping with difficult life situations and illness and had an internal locus of control regarding treatment. Patients with a low level of fear of disease progression tended to use strategies of positive reinterpretation of difficult life situations and illness; an external locus of control regarding treatment prevailed in this group. Patients found to have a dysfunctional level of fear of disease progression displayed significantly higher rates of using cognitive-regulation strategies focused on negative aspects of illness, as well as strategies for avoiding difficult life situations. Fear of disease progression is a psychological problem in women with reproductive-system cancers. Higher levels of fear of disease progression are associated with a decrease in the psychosocial adaptation of women suffering from reproductivesystem cancers.
Structural-phenomenological features of the internal picture of doctors’ illnesses
Victor A. Lazarenko, Vera B. Nikishina, Lyudmila N. Molchanova, Tatyana V. Nedurueva
The vocational activities of doctors and their social status do not ensure their health. And, falling ill, doctors don’t identify themselves with ordinary patients as they have a deep knowledge of medicine. Thus, the internal picture of a doctor’s illness is both a research and a practical problem: the problem of the psychoprevention of doctors’ illnesses at all stages of their professionalization. The purpose of the research was to study the phenomenological features of the internal picture of doctors’ illnesses using the structural approach. The total number of participants was 132. The experimental group consisted of 66 sick doctors, differentiated according to their stage of professionalization: vocational training (students), professional adaptation (interns), full professionalization (doctors). The control group consisted of 66 people who did not have any medical education. All the control subjects were hospitalized with chronic diseases during the study period. The organization of the research was carried out with the use of clinical-psychological and diagnostic methods, the methods of descriptive statistics, and comparative, multidimensional, and structural analysis. The research revealed the following phenomenological features of the internal picture of doctors’ illnesses: the prevalence of some anxiety in the doctors and high awareness of their health; the doctors’ altruistic orientation; their willingness to work despite difficulties; and their ability to achieve high results in different activities. The structural features of the doctors’ image of their own diseases on the cognitive level were the following: qualitative heterogeneity during in-service activities; a high degree of image integration during in-service activities; and stereotyped perceptions of the disease. The emotional level revealed the emotional distance between doctors and their patients, and the behavioral level revealed doctors’ disregard for the symptoms of the disease. The structural-phenomenological features of the formation of the internal picture of doctors’ illnesses are specific to the circumstances of their origin. For the purpose of the psychoprevention of doctors’ own diseases it is necessary to include these features in the special courses on medical psychology at the stages of vocational training (students) and professional adaptation (interns), as well as in the “psychology in practical medicine” project for doctors.
In the present article the author demonstrates topicality of conduct ing research devoted to stresses in modern organisations and technologies aimed to optimise such stresses. The article also proves necessity to focus more attention on practices of stress management in Russian companies. The author considers professional stress, its levels (high, optimal (medium), low) and its sources. The article identifies existing methodical approaches to managing stress in the organisation and levels of stress management (at the level of the organisation and the level of the individual). The article presents foreign practices of applying stress optimisation programmes at the level of the entire organisation (employees support programmes, healthcare programmes, programmes aimed to improve the quality of life for employees, absenteeism control programmes, stress management programmes), as well as gives an estimate of management practices, pertaining to stress management in Russia.
Structure-interaction theory: conceptual, contextual and strategic influences on human communication
Beebe Steven A.
This paper addresses Structure-Interaction Theory (SIT), a theoretical framework that both describes communication messages as well as assists in making predictions about how human communication can be improved based on listener preferences for message structure or interaction. Communication messages may be characterized as existing on a continuum of structure-interaction. Communication structure is the inherent way information in a message is organized. A highly structured message is one in which the message is strategically organized using a planned arrangement of symbols to create meaning. Communication interaction is a way of viewing a message with give-and-take, less sustained “notes,” more change in note sequence and briefer notes. SIT seeks to provide a framework to assist communicators in appropriately adapting a message for maximum effectiveness. Although Structure-Interaction Theory newly articulated here, it is anchored in both classic ways of describing communication, such as rhetoric and dialectic (Aristotle, 1959), as well as more contemporary communication theories (Salem, 2012; Littlejohn & Foss, 2008). Specifically, the paper provides an overview of the theory and its conceptual assumptions, identifies how the theory can help explain and predict communication in several communication contexts (interpersonal, group, public communication), and suggests how SIT may help identify strategies to enhance human development. Structure-Interaction Theory is based on an assumption that a human communication message which is understood, achieves the intended effect of the communicator, and is ethical, requires an appropriate balance of two things: structure and interaction. Communication structure is the inherent way a message is constructed to provide a sustained direction to present information to another person. In linking structure and interaction to Aristotle's description of messages, rhetoric is a more structured, sustained speech or planned message. Dialectic is characterized by a more spontaneous give and take interaction of messages and response to messages. SIT posits that all communication can be placed on a continuum of structure-interaction. The paper identifies applications of SIT to several communication situations and presents communication strategies that can enhance human development. The paper also notes how SIT can be used to develop message strategies to adapt to audience preferences for structure and interaction based on culture and audience expectations. Considering the needs, interests, values (including cultural values) of the audience, is the prime determinant of the degree of structure or interaction that should be evident in a communication episode. Appropriately applied, SIT may help both describe the nature of messages (as structured or interactive) as well as assist in making predictions as to how applications of the structure-interaction message continuum may enhance communication effectiveness.
Strategies for L2 lecture comprehension: an intervention study
Sylvia Velikova, Dimiter Tsvetkov
The study reported in this article set out to investigate the effect of an intervention
into the strategies for second language (L2) lecture comprehension. The research
was conducted in a Bulgarian university context and adopted a quasi-experimental
pretest-posttest design. The 15-week instructional sequence was based on explicit/
direct teaching of cognitive and metacognitive strategies for listening to lectures in
English. The results indicated that the students in the experimental group (n = 34)
significantly outperformed their counterparts in the comparison group (n = 25) in a
multiple-choice test used as a measure for L2 lecture comprehension. The findings,
therefore, suggest that the strategy-based instruction could facilitate the development
of L2 lecture listening skills.
Structure of the motivational component of personal helplessness at different age stages
Веденеева Е. В., Циринг Д. А.
В статье приводятся результаты эмпирического исследования структуры мотивационного компонента личностной беспомощности в младшем школьном, подростковом и юношеском возрастах.The article contains the results of empirical research of structure of the motivational component of personal helplessness in primary school, teenage and youth age.
Structure and content-related peculiarities of career orientation on the early stages of professiona
Tsaritsentseva Oksana Petrovna
This article presents description and analysis of such structural component of career as career orientation. The author gives a definition of this term, states its functions and peculiarities on the early stages of professional development – during the time of studying at higher education institution. Techniques, on the basis of which the data concerning structure and content peculiarities of career orientation on the early stages of professional development was received, are regarded. Comparative analysis of peculiarities of the choice of top-priority career orientations on the early stages of professional development and faculties is carried out in accordance with the results of the research.
Structural dialectical approach in psychology: problems and research results
Veraksa Nikolay E., Belolutskaya Anastasiya K., Vorobyeva Irina I., Krasheninnikov Eugene E., Rachkova Elena V., Shiyan Igor B., Shiyan Olga A.
In this article dialectical thinking is regarded as one of the central cognitive processes. Because of this cognitive function we can analyze the development of processes and objects. It also determines the possibilities for the creative transformation of some content and for solving problems. The article presents a description and the results of experimental studies. This evidence proves that dialectical thinking is a specific line of cognitive development in children and adults. This line can degrade during school time if the educational program follows formal logical principles, or it can become significantly stronger if the pedagogy is based on dialectical methodology.
The author views dialectic cognition as an integral and unique process, which is based on dialectical logic the logic of operating opposites. The development of this logic takes place during the preschool years through transformation of contradictory situations. The transformation process is carried out by dialectical cognitive actions.