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Источник: Оксфордский толковый словарь по психологии

Найдено рефератов по теме SE — 0

Найдено научных статей по теме — 12

Sex differences in mathematical achievement: grades, national test, and self-confidence

Egorova Marina S., Chertkova Yulia D.
Academic achievement, which is inherently an indicator of progress in the curriculum, can also be viewed as an indirect measure of cognitive development, social adaptation, and motivational climate characteristics. In addition to its direct application, academic achievement is used as a mediating factor in the study of various phenomena, from the etiology of learning disabilities to social inequality. Analysis of sex differences in mathematical achievement is considered particularly important for exploring academic achievement, since creating an adequate educational environment with equal opportunities for boys and girls serves as a prerequisite for improving the overall mathematical and technical literacy that is crucial for modern society, creates balanced professional opportunities, and destroys traditional stereotypes about the roles of men and women in society. The objective of our research was to analyze sex differences in mathematical achievement among high school students and to compare various methods for diagnosing academic performance, such as school grades, test scores, and self-concept. The results were obtained through two population studies whose samples are representative of the Russian population in the relevant age group. Study 1 looked at sex differences in math grades among twins (n = 1,234 pairs) and singletons (n = 2,227) attending high school. The sample of Study 2 comprised all twins who took the Unified State Examination in 2010-2012. The research analyzed sex differences in USE math scores across the entire sample and within the extreme subgroups. It also explored differences between boys and girls in opposite-sex dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs. The key results were as follows. No difference in mathematical achievement was observed between twins and singletons. Sex differences were found in all measures of mathematical achievement. Girls had higher school grades in math than boys, while boys outperformed girls in USE math scores. Boys were more variable and there were more boys at the right tail of the distribution. Girls with a positive math self-concept did better than boys on math tests. In groups of opposite-sex DZ twins, differences between the USE math scores of girls and boys were not significant. The results obtained are presumed to correspond more closely to assumptions about the roles of non-cognitive factors of variation in mathematical ability than the mathematical ability theory.
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SECULARISM and Religious Faith

Maksim A. Balaklitsky
In this apologetic work the author compares the "ideal types" of secular ideology (understood as superstition; Russian: sueverie) with religious ones (as trust [Rus1 sian: doverie] in God), showing the competitive and conflictive nature of their interaction. The article demonstrates the ideological and moral bankruptcy of the secular worldview, the apophatic, negative pathos of its pseudo1freedom from duties and relationships, and, as a result, from the meaning and true value of human life. The purpose of the article is to criticize the "theol1 ogy of political correctness," i.e. attempts to soften adherence to Biblical principles of moral evaluation of the atheistic way of life, as well to criticize the false "spirituality" of the New Age movement that seeks to return the civilized consumer to the pagan deification of human instincts. The separation of Church and State, bought with the lives of thousands of Protestants, is one of the major achievements of modern times. The solution to the problem of the moral degradation of society lies not in the reduction of the space of freedom, as in medieval Catholic Europe, but in the following of the moral precepts of the gospel by the Church, although not in the short1 term political order1even with a religious tinge1and in the continued fulfillment of the Great Commission.
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Self-transcendence facilitates meaning-making and flow: Evidence from a pilot experimental study

Evgeny N. Osin, Anna V. Malyutina, Natalia V. Kosheleva
We review the psychological theory of flow and focus on the notion of the autotelic personality, arguing that self-transcendence (understood within the existential tradition of Frankl and Längle as the individual’s ability to establish inner relationships with values) can be viewed as a personality disposition conducive to flow experience. The study aimed to investigate the effects of situational task meaning and dispositional self-transcendence on productivity and flow experience. We present a pilot quasi-experimental study conducted in a student sample (N = 82) Students were asked to work in small-group settings on a creative task, which consisted in finding solutions to a social problem. Each group was randomly assigned to an instruction presenting the problem as happening either in a distant country (low-meaning) or in their home country (high-meaning condition). The outcome variables were measures of flow, perceived meaning of the task, and satisfaction with time spent working. The solutions generated by the students were rated by three experts. The experimental manipulation had a main effect on the quality of the resulting solutions, but not on the subjective experience of the participants. A number of significant interaction effects were found, indicating that the associations of self-transcendence with experiential outcomes tended to be linear under the low-meaning condition, but curvilinear under the high-meaning condition. The findings suggest that self-transcendence is particularly beneficial to flow in situations with unclear meaning, but very high levels of self-transcendence may hinder flow in highly meaningful situations. Overall, the findings suggest that self-transcendence can be considered as a disposition of the autotelic personality.
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Semantic structures of world image as internal factors in the self-destructive behavior of today’s t

Alekhin Anatoly N., Koroleva Natalya N., Ostasheva Eugeniya I.
This article presents the results of a theoretical and methodological analysis and empirical study of semantic formations in the structure of a world image as factors in teenagers’ self-destructive behavior in contemporary Russian society. During the teenage years the value-semantic bases of a world image are being formed. A world image is the integral, multilevel representation of the subject, which consists of social reality and himself/her-self; it exists in the mind as a unity of sensual fabrications, significations, and personalized meanings. Transformations of semantic components of a world image that are inadequate for the environment or that are externally and internally rigid can serve as preconditions for disadaptation and for one of its extreme forms-self-destructive behavior. The purpose of our empirical research was to determine the main characteristics of basic conceptual formations in the structure of a world image-that is, attitudes, intentions, motives, and valuesthat serve as predictors of disadaptation in modern teenagers. The teenagers in the study were born in different generations with a ten-year interval (1990-1991 and 2000-2001). Our empirical research of the semantic world-image structures that serve as bases for the self-destructive behavior of modern teenagers consisted of two phases. The first phase provided a comparative analysis of the relationships, value preferences, and basic conceptual intentions that raise the possibility of disadaptation and self-destructive behavior among teenagers. In order to perform this analysis, we analyzed data from the Character-Pathological Diagnostic Poll (PDP) of A. E. Lichko. During the second phase, a comparative analysis was carried out of the basic semantic components of teenagers’ images of the world and self-destructive and normative behavior. The main conceptual world-image structures were defined with the help of projective methods: the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) and the modification for teenagers and youth (TAT-Y), which was developed by A. N. Alekhin and others. The main changes in the value-semantic orientations and personality dispositions of Russian teenagers in the late 20th to early 21st centuries were defined. The features of the semantic organization of these teenagers’ world image as a precondition for disadaptive behavior were uncovered, and the personality preconditions for their self-destructive behavior were identified: their world image is fragmentary and self-contradictory; their personality features include cognitive distortions, a negative emotional state, ambivalence of motives and disposition, and disharmony with world-image semantic structures. The indicator for social disadaptation and behavioral deviation in modern Russian teenagers is evident deformation of personal relationships as the basic cognitive structure of their world image.
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Self-educational activities of music teachers as a condition for creativity implementation

Dubrovina Irina Vladimirovna
Artistic self-educational activities of music teachers are analyzed as a scientific problem. The category of “artistic self-education” of music teachers is defined. Main priority targets and indicators of artistic self-education of music teachers are outlined. The mechanisms of stimulation of artistic self-education of music teachers, their self-education skills as a condition for the implementation of creativity are described.
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Semantics aspect of information in the communications of social interactions

Krul Alexandra Sergeevna
In this paper considers influence of the type of information on the process and outcome of communicative interactions. The possible options communicative interactions based on identifying the types of information transmitted messages. We determine semantic aspects of information messages as one of the factors that determines the process and result of communication and social interactions. Through research, we can say that in the process of information exchange formed a semantic space that can determine the process and the result of communications. The type of information message determines the choice of communication strategy communication management, possible social structures. Knowing the model of communication interactions, which is based on semantic analysis, you can manage communication processes in society.
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Self-assessed intelligence, personality, and psychometric intelligence: preliminary validation of a

Kornilova Tatiana V., Novikova Maria A.
In the current study, self-assessed intelligence (SAI) is presented as a multidimensional construct related both to personality and to psychometric intelligence. On the basis of data obtained from a Russian student sample (N = 496), the authors validate a structural model in which SAI acts as a mediating variable between latent variables of measured IQ and the trait of acceptance of uncertainty. Evidence for significant gender differences in SAI in favor of men is also given.
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Selfie как современный социально-психологический феномен

В статье рассматривается современный социокультурный феномен selfie с точки зрения его социально-психологической роли. Сам феномен selfie – представляет собой автопортрет сделанный камерой мобильного телефона или компьютера – для самопрезентации в виртуальном пространстве. Приводится количественный анализ самопредставления в виртуальном пространстве при помощи selfie-фотографий.
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Self-organisation or selfcreation? From social physics to realist dynamics

Snooks Graeme Donald
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Security problems of communicative strategies

Dontsov Aleksander I., Perelygina Elena B.
The main directions of safety formation in communication strategies are connected with their adaptation to the conditions of social and psychological variability. Building up a communicative strategy is a versatile process, in which it is necessary to consider a wide spectrum of social and psychological parameters, especially topical in the modern period of social development. Forms of social interactions in schematic formats of contemporary social and economic revolution are reduced, social and functional potentials are depleted, mass society is further diff erentiating, the pace of historic changes is growing, all this determines the necessity to prepare changes in personality structures to the dynamics of social and psychological fl uidity.
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Security psychology as social systemic phenomenon

Zinchenko Yuri P.
Security psychology is considered through social systemic search for reciprocal contiguity and mutual completion of existing advances of psychology and conceptual security understanding. The ability of systemic vision of security and its cognitive and practical specifics are demonstrated. The possibility to investigate safety psychology as social theoretical construct is suggested. Multi-aspect approach to security is substantiated. Methodological challenges of psychological security are discussed.
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Self-regulation training and prevention of negative human functional states at work: traditions and

Leonova Anna B., Kuznetsova Alla S., Barabanshchikova Valentina V.
The paper is devoted to consideration of self-regulation training that can be used in order to prevent a development of negative human functional states (HFS) in work environment. According to the well-developed in Russian work and organizational psychology traditions the effects of practical implementation of various self-regulation methods on job efficiency and workers well-being are analyzed. The positive patterns of changes in HFS syndromes taken place as a result of prolonged courses of self-regulation training are described. It is shown that a successful acquisition of self-regulation skills strongly depends on (1) specificity of job content and (2) individual sensitivity to various relaxation techniques. These findings are useful for enhancing the quality of work-site stress management and health promotion programs.
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