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1. Сокращение, обозначающее генеральный фактор, также обозначаемый как G. 2. В теории Халла – отдельная часть целевой реакции. См. здесь фракционная реакция, предшествующая цели.

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Источник: Оксфордский толковый словарь по психологии/Под ред. А.Ребера,2002 г

Найдено научных статей по теме — 12


Casañ Pitarch Ricardo
New methods and approaches focusing on foreign language teaching are continuously being developed and applied in the classroom at different educational levels. The interest in raising learners’ competences in foreign languages has been a fact in the last few decades. In this sense, approaches integrating the learning of non-linguistic content through a vehicular language that is not the learners’ mother tongue have been widely used around the world. However, it seems that some benefits of those approaches integrating language and content could be further strengthened if the time of exposure to content and language was higher and if students were highly motivated to learn. To this purpose, this article suggests that serious videogames could be a suitable tool to provide learners with further teaching support and increase their motivation in a playful context and introduces a model that aims at gamifying and integrating content and language learning through serious videogames.
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Minasyan Stella
The present research endeavours to shed light on the role that gender plays in the language classroom in the Greek context. As no systematic investigation has considered special aspects of gender and interaction in primary school classrooms, this study seeks to investigate how teachers and students position themselves within different discourses in EFL classroom interaction. The issues discussed include turn-taking and interruptions, praise and reprimand, class dominance, teacher attention and class participation in classroom interaction. Drawing on language and gender research, it was hypothesized that gender of the learner affects the learner’s language use and behaviour during EFL interaction. This study advances our understanding of gendered classroom interaction and highlights important ways in which students’ gender influences teacher-student, as well as student-student interaction. Moreover, this study sheds light on gender bias which occurs in the classroom and thus impedes teachers’ abilities to work successfully with all students. The Greek data revealed great similarity with findings of previous studies by supporting the assumption that: (a) teachers are biased in favour of boys, especially with respect to giving them more attention; (b) male students demand more teacher attention and more instructions from the teacher than their female peers; (c) female students are more likely to receive praise and positive comments, whereas male students are reprimanded by the teacher; (d) male students are more active in class participation, by taking more turns, volunteering and calling out.
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Demidyuk I.V., Chukhontseva K.N., Kostrov S.V.
Glutamyl endopeptidases (GEPases) are chymotrypsin-like enzymes that preferentially cleave the peptide bonds of the α-carboxyl groups of glutamic acid. Despite the many years of research, the structural determinants underlying the strong substrate specificity of GEPases still remain unclear. In this review, data concerning the molecular mechanisms that determine the substrate preference of GEPases is generalized. In addition, the biological functions of and modern trends in the research into these enzymes are outlined.
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Gellner's Ideal Kinship Language And the Connection between Biological And Social Relatedness

Patrick Heady
Gellner’s concept of an ideal kinship language anticipated later developments in methods for recording kinship connections, and also sparked a controversy about the relation between biological and social kinship. Though the debate has moved on, the topic has remained controversial. I argue that the idea of an ideal kinship language offers a way of analyzing the relationship between alter-native theories, and opens up the possibility of a more integrated approach.
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Gender existence: correlation between equality and identity

Storozhuk Svitlana, Goian Igor
The article deals with the conceptual vision of gender content in its relation to sex taking into account the extremes to which researchers of gender issues and social movements have resorted to and considering the role and place of men and women in social and cultural life. On this background wrongfulness of such approaches is justified, according to which gender and sex are identified. It is shown in this article that these notions have different meanings and represent different dimensions of human existence. Thus, in contrast to sex, which reveals the physiological differences between men and women, gender is a socio cultural construct which sets the «matrix» of gender interaction at every historical stage of social and cultural life by offering their own vision of gender equality. Alongside with other ideas we substantiate the idea that gender equality is possible only in the social aspect.
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Gender and age aspects of child psychological defenses in child-mother relationships

Bogdanova Maria V., Rusyaeva Irina A., Vylegzhanina Anastasia O.
The high level of stress in modern society poses a need to study family factors and resources for the development of children's defense mechanisms in the current social environment. This study investigates correlations between maternal and child psychological defense mechanisms, using interviews, a structured clinical survey, projective drawing, and a projective game. Analysis of data from 240 people (120 children and 120 mothers) revealed specifics of the formation of psychological defense mechanisms among children aged 4 to 12 years in child-mother relationships. We suggest that maternal and child defense mechanisms have some isomorphic traits, but the level and quality of isomorphism changes with each age period of the child. Certain defensive mechanisms of mother and child appear with the same frequency. The child's gender influences the correlation between the mother's and child's psychological defense mechanisms. Initially, children are more likely to directly copy defense mechanisms observed from the mother's behavior. As they grow older, they use defenses that they have learned consciously. Based on empirical data, we also found a correlation between the maturity of the maternal psychological defense mechanisms and specifics of child psychological defense mechanisms. We propose that the maturity of maternal psychological defense mechanisms has the greatest meaning for child psychological defense mechanisms at the earliest stages of ontogenesis it provides consistency between the mother's own psychological defense mechanisms and the psychological defense mechanisms that she teaches her child.
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Graph description as an issue in L2 academic English writing

Khrabrova Valentina
Young people’s interest in taking international exams such as IELTS results from student mobility and their willingness to appraise language abilities. In this paper, Academic Writing Task One of IELTS is examined. This task implies candidates comprehending graphic information and processing it in written discourse. The gap between a host of graph description tests and an insignificant number of efficient teaching methods has provided a rationale for the current study. It focuses on graph description as a cognitive, psychological and educational process and employs the analysis method in the theoretical section. Based on the action research method, drawing on 25 students’ written samples, the study has quested for peculiar language problems detrimental to processing the graph description task. The data have revealed the key pillars of successful written graph presentation: the combination of all four main skills, i.e. reading, listening, writing, and speaking; skills transfer; critical thinking and writing; the appropriate use of style; graphic literacy. It is concluded that the “constant nudging” method, a skills transfer, the use of appropriate vocabulary for describing trends alongside academic functional phrases and grammar features, the analysis of mass media information with numeric data are solutions to graph description issues. The findings have implications for preparing students for IELTS.
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Gender identity of the deprived youth as an integrative psychological phenomenon

Kiz' O.B.
The article studies the problem of the gender identity of boys and girls with different parent-child relationships experience. It was found out by experiments that deprived social conditions reflect gender orientations, ego-image, manifestations of gender behavior, lifestyle, and personal qualities of youth. The formation of gender identity in terms of deprivation is characterized by inadequate absorption of samples of gender stereotypes that leads to sex undifferentiated type of behavior, hyper masculinity girls, diffuse gender splitting ego image.
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Gender aspects of status in teenage student groups

Marianna E. Sachkova, Irina N. Timoshina
Typical male and female roles and relationships can be observed at different social levels: intergroup, intragroup, interpersonal, intrapersonal. In adolescence, increased development of gender characteristics (gender identity, gender stereotypes, gender roles) appears at all levels. Since the leading activity at this age is interpersonal communication, research into gender characteristics and their influence on relations in the student group is one of the most important tasks of modern psychology. One hundred and forty teenagers in grades 6-8 from secondary schools in Moscow, aged of 12–14, were involved in the research. Special social-psychological techniques were applied for assessment of status relations (sociometry, referentometry, methodology for defining the informal intragroup power structure) and gender characteristics (Bem Sex Role Inventory in classical and modified versions), as well as correlation and cluster analyses. We found that representations about the group leader contained clear masculine features. We underline the discrepancy between the qualities attributed to the image of the leader and the qualities of the actual group leaders. Thus, the image of the leader includes predominantly masculine characteristics, while actual high-status group members describe themselves with both feminine and gender-neutral features. Finally gender-typed behavior and masculine traits are more typical of low-status teenagers.
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G. Shpet and hermeneutics

Pushkareva Bauman Moscow State Technical University
Article purpose is to show the significance of the ideas of Shpet for the development of Russian philosophy and the Russian hermeneutics. Particular attention is given to the relationship of word and personality in the process of understanding. The emphasis is on the relevance of hermeneutic developments of the thinker for the present.
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Gender in the class: cultural aspects of participation in seminars of small groups

Smolander Maria Anatolievna
Understanding of a wide range of gender distinctions will assist bachelor students with deeper analysis of modern global economy. Results of the research specify also that the fundamental differences between students in educational process depend on their own gender characteristics.
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Gender characteristics of innovation and leadership explicity in students

Mikhailova O.B., Kaminskaya E.A.
The paper presents the theoretical and empirical analysis of gender studies devoted to the innovative behavior component. The theoretical research on innovative behavior considers its separate aspects: the specificity of decision-making, the flexibility of various actions means, the attitude to risk, the motivation of achievement and value-motivational attitude to activity and leadership. Basing on the theoretical analysis of the innovative behavior components, the authors of the article presents an empirical study of gender characteristics of innovative traits and leadership skills among students.
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